APPENDIX 5
EVidenCe ReLeVanT TO THe GeneRiC COnCLUSiOnS On THe ReLaTiOnSHip BeTWeen pOLiTiCianS and THe pReSS: Part I, Chapter 8

1. Introduction

1.1 This Annex should be read as a whole. In particular, it should be noted that:

  1. the references are set out in alphabetical order by the name of the witness. No particular inference should, therefore, be drawn from the order in which they are presented;
  2. in most cases, the facts upon which the conclusion is based in Part I, Chapter 8 are readily apparent from the terms of the criticism itself and the evidential references, and are not separately stated at length;
  3. some of the conclusions overlap and the supporting facts and evidence are not always set out more than once;
  4. the evidence referenced in support of each conclusion is intended to be representative rather than exhaustive, especially in cases where the Inquiry received significant volumes of similar evidence.

1.1 It is the cumulative effect of the evidence cited, taken together and looked at as a whole, which supports the conclusion.

2. Referencing

2.2 The full title of each witness is given in the first reference to their evidence. Witness statements, exhibits and transcripts are identified by a hyperlink to their location on the Inquiry website, www.levesoninquiry.org.uk.

2.2 When reference is made to a witness statement, the numbering system of that document, i.e. paragraph or page number, has been used. For example, page 12 of the Supplementary Witness Statement of Mr Alan Rusbridger is cited as follows:

Mr Alan Rusbridger p12, http://www.levesoninquiry.org.uk/wp-content/uploads/2012/01/Supplementary-Statement-of-Alan-Rusbridger.pdf.

A reference to a page in a witness statement does not necessarily imply that the content of the entire page is cited as support for the related fact. Where available, paragraph numbers have been used.

2.2 When reference has been made to a passage in a transcript, the passage is identified in the form [page number]/[line number]. The page number is a reference to pages of the transcript, not to pages of the pdf document. There are 4 transcript pages per page of the document. For example, the passage from page 19, line 5 to page 21, line 4 in the transcript of the afternoon of 23 April 2012, during Mr Evgeny Lebedev’s evidence is cited as follows:

Mr Evgeny Lebedev 19/5-21/4, http://www.levesoninquiry.org.uk/wp-content/uploads/2012/04/Transcript-of-Afternoon-Hearing-23-April-2012.pdf

3. Development and maintenance of an over close relationship between politicians and national Newspapers

Conclusion

  1. The political parties of UK national government, and of UK official opposition, have had or developed too close a relationship with the press. This conclusion relates at least to the period of the last thirty to thirty-five years. Although aspects, and the problematic nature, of this relationship have fluctuated over time, there has been a perceptible increase in proximity which has not been in the public interest.
  2. The relationship between the press and the politicians has been too close in the following principal respects:
    1. politicians have spent a disproportionate amount of time, attention and resource on this relationship in comparison to, and at the expense of, other legitimate claims in relation to their conduct of public affairs;
    2. in conducting their relationship with the press, politicians have not always maintained with adequate rigour appropriate boundaries between the conduct of public affairs on the one hand and their private or personal interests on the other;

Evidence base and factual summary

Mrs Sly Bailey:

Mr Aidan Barclay:

The Right Honourable Tony Blair:

Mrs Rebekah Brooks:

The Right Honourable Gordon Brown MP:

The Right Honourable Dr Vincent Cable MP:

The Right Honourable David Cameron MP:

Mr Alastair Campbell:

The Right Honourable Kenneth Clarke QC MP:

The Right Honourable Nick Clegg MP:

Mr Paul Dacre:

Mr Tony Gallagher:

The Right Honourable Michael Gove MP:

Mr James Harding:

The Right Honourable Jeremy Hunt MP:

Mr Evgeny Lebedev:

Mr John Lloyd:

Mr Kelvin MacKenzie:

The Right Honourable Sir John Major

The Right Honourable Lord Mandelson

Mr Andrew Marr:

The Right Honourable Ed Miliband MP:

Mr Dominic Mohan:

Mr Piers Morgan:

Mr James Murdoch:

Mr Rupert Murdoch:

Mr Peter Oborne:

Lord O’Donnell:

The Right Honourable George Osborne MP:

The Right Honourable Lord Patten of Barnes:

Mr Jeremy Paxman:

Mr Alan Rusbridger:

The Right Honourable Jack Straw MP:

Mr Richard Wallace:

Mr Neil Wallis:

Ms Tina Weaver:

Lack of transparency and accountability

Conclusion

(iii) Politicians have failed to conduct their relationship with the press sufficiently transparently and accountably from the point of view of the public.

Evidence base and factual summary

Tony Blair:

Gordon Brown MP:

David Cameron MP:

Alastair Campbell:

Nick Clegg MP:

Michael Gove MP:

Jeremy Hunt MP:

John Lloyd:

Lord Mandelson:

Andrew Marr:

Ed Miliband MP:

Rupert Murdoch:

Peter Oborne:

Lord O’Donnell:

George Osborne MP

Jeremy Paxman:

Jack Straw MP:

4. The consequences of excessive proximity

Conclusion

(iv) In consequence of, or associated with, this relationship of inappropriate closeness, politicians have conducted themselves, contrary to the public interest, so as to: a. place themselves in a position in which they risked becoming vulnerable to unaccountable influences, in a manner which was potentially in conflict with their responsibilities in relation to the conduct of public affairs; b. permit, accept or encourage the power and dominance of certain voices in the press, to the impoverishment of public debate and the formulation and implementation of public policy; c. miss a number of clear opportunities decisively to address, and persistently fail to respond more generally to public concern about, the culture practices and ethics of the press; d. seek to control and manipulate the supply of news and information to the public in return for favourable treatment by sections of the press, to a degree and by means going beyond the fair and reasonable partisan conduct of public debate, particularly bearing in mind the responsibilities of parties in government.

Evidence base and factual summary

Tony Blair:

Rebekah Brooks:

Gordon Brown MP:

David Cameron MP:

Alastair Campbell:

Kenneth Clarke QC MP:

Nick Clegg MP:

Michael Gove MP:

Jeremy Hunt MP:

John Lloyd:

Sir John Major:

Lord Mandelson:

Andrew Marr:

Ed Miliband MP:

Peter Oborne:

Lord O’Donnell:

Jeremy Paxman:

Jack Straw MP:

Richard Wallace:

Neil Wallis:

Tina Weaver:

5. The consequences on public confidence in and the public perception of the relationship between politicians and the press

Conclusion

(v) A combination of these factors has contributed to a lessening of public confidence in the conduct of public affairs, including by giving rise to legitimate perceptions and concerns that politicians and the press have traded power and influence in ways which are contrary to the public interest. These perceptions and concerns are particularly acute, inevitably, in relation to the conduct by politicians in government of public policy issues in relation to the press itself.

Evidence base and factual summary

The matters set out below are in addition to the matters already set out above in this notice insofar as they are relevant to public confidence and public perceptions.

David Cameron MP:

Alastair Campbell:

Kenneth Clarke QC MP:

Sir John Major:

Lord Mandelson:

Ed Miliband MP:

Peter Oborne:

Lord O’Donnell:

Jack Straw MP:

Neil Wallis:

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